Criminology recognizes three groups of theories, which attempted to explain crime causation. Crime was explained by biological, sociological and psychological theories. Three different types of criminological theories attempted to answer what is causing of crimes. Each criminological theory tried to establish its high level of credibility and reliability. Classical theory was first established as a part of modern criminology, but turning points for development of scientific method in criminology began in 19th century soon as criminology pioneers implemented them in the etiological research of crime. Furthermore, at that point it became possible to study criminology in the scientific manner, although concepts that involved crime causation and foundation of modern criminology began with a critical and rational approach of classical criminology. Identifying the cause of crime from the theory standpoint became a specific and major task of criminology.Classical criminologists believed that criminal behavior is best represented by a free will and their theory views on criminality were purely philosophical. Positivists sometimes called Italian school of criminology, because its major representatives were Italian national, emphasized the collection and analysis of data on the biological and social causes of criminal behavior.Ferry proposed a classification of criminal types, which included the born or instinctive criminal, the insane criminal, the passionate criminal, the involuntary criminal, the occasional criminal, and the habitual criminal. The occasional and habitual aren’t innate criminals, but the products of unfortunate family or societal circumstances. According to Ferry, the true criminal is one who lacks basic altruistic sentiment of honesty and pity.  Ferry used both sociological and biological factors to explain a cause of crime. Rafael Garofalo contribution to criminology was that he found that certain forms of criminal behavior might be encouraged by social and environmental circumstances, and this set a path for numerous experiments and scientific expertise on the way to define crime causation.

Psychological theories of crime came to the existence around 1913, and their primary concern was to find a supporting link between crime and  low intelligence. Furthermore, psychological researches found  the difference of 8 points in IQ scores between delinquents and non-delinquents. Besides IQ testing in criminal psychology, other researchers dealt with personality disorders i.e. Robert Hare made an extensive research of psychopaths, sociopaths and antisocial personalities. Hare identified the mechanism and made a classification of psychopaths.

Social theories of crime

The evolution of sociological theories of crime began in 19th century and continued today.Social theories of crime researched cultural and social factors that lead to criminal behavior. Structural theoretical approach stated that certain groups within a society have less opportunities to achieve the goals most valued by a society. Society demands that people should reach social respectable goals, but acceptable methods are hard are hard to comply and goals are often unreachable in the such way.  Because the opportunities are not the same for all, the society is contributing to crime. Other social theories like subcultural theories of crime have researched the discrepancy between social norms and systems of value and the norms and values of a specific subcultural group. Research of juvenile delinquency and youth gangs found that criminal behavior directed towards living up to values of delinquent subcultural group.Conflict theory states that society is based on conflict between competing social classes. Conflict theory came to the existence in 1960’s and is based on the perpetual conflict between powerless and powerful. Ecological criminology was developed in 1920’s at the University of Chicago.  Theorists of ecological criminology were called Chicago school of criminology. They claimed that crime is a result of disorganized eco-areas, but have disregarded personal traits of people who live in those eco-areas. Multi factor criminology theories of criminality are integration of societal, psychological and biological/biosocial theoretical approaches to defining crime causation. Criminology multiple factor theory began its development as an interdisciplinary study to integrate valid elements of theories in a single "corpus" of crime explanations.

Biological theories of crime  made the common assumptions that physical traits can lead an individual to criminal activities. Generally speaking, it was thought that physical attributes were passed down from parent to child. It was thought that the risk of committing of crimes also passed down from parents. The early biological theories of crime were focused mainly on heredity of crime, and made rather quick assumptions about the research findings.

Biological theories of crime causation

In 1879 psychology was established as a scientific discipline. Psychology emerged at a same time as criminology. The father of psychology was a German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. Scientific methodologies, which were implemented in biological theories had many flaws, and the task was given to psychology to explain criminal behavior Theories to explain criminal behavior existed throughout history, but what is different about is that psychological theories include research of cognitive thinking or decision making processes that could explain why people choose to break a law in a particular situation. In general terms, psychologists are committed to the scientific study of human behavior, with its emphasis on hypotheses that can be tested using empirical and quantitative data in well controlled experiments and making systematic observation of experimental variables how they effect on the outcome of the experiment. Psychology has been significant to understanding criminal responsibility for many decades. It offers several different explanations, reasons and motives of crime, which are behind the criminal actions. In order to make any definitive conclusion on any theories it is required to analyze them and their contribution in criminology.

In psychology, there are two areas of research: behavior observation and behavior prediction. Psychological theories of delinquency sought abnormalities in behavior or  personality of criminals.
The term psychology was coined by Marko Marulic (father of Croatian literature) in his work "Psichiologia de ratione anime humanae" (1510-1517).

Personality theories of delinquency

Psychoanalytical theory developed by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) stated that human personality has three psychic structures: id, ego and super ego. Id is an instance of personality who pursues instant needs without any thought and analysis. Ego is the instance which is a result of education and socialization, while super ego psychic instance is a container of all messages received from parents. Therefore, crime is a result of Id's prevalence over superego.
Although crime theory was only partially mentioned in a Freud's theory, psychoanalytical theory became the popular explanation of crime, especially when motives of  delinquent behavior couldn't be explained.

"Some people cannot be bought by gold or jewels. They just want to see the world burn."

Instinctive theories of delinquency

According to Freud, there are two instincts: eros and thanatos. Eros is a desire to live, while thanatos is a desire to die. Constant struggle exists between eros and thanatos. Aggressiveness must be blown out through sport or physical exercise, because if not it could result with inadequate social behavior like violence or suicide. Individuals are often balancing between eros and thanatos.

Eysenck's theory of crime: Extroversion and introversion

Eysenck claimed that the hedonistic tendency to commit crimes is controlled by the conscience. He also spoke about introversion and extroversion. Introverted persons are sensitive and can't take the limited number of  stimulus, while extroverted persons enjoy in a large number of stimulus and do not to be bored. According to Eysenck, criminality is a natural and normal choice with whom the people enhance pleasure or reduce pain. Reactions on some behavior are punishments or rewards. Extroverted persons aren't able to learn from experience.
Other psychological theories of the crime deal with mental disorders, psychopathy, self induced mental incapacity (alcoholism and drug addiction) and influence of public media on the crime. Today, personality test are able to provide a great insight about someones predisposition towards delinquency by examining the potential conflicts, which exist in someones personality.

Research of iq relation to crime

Crime and sugar

Biochemical theories claim that there is a causal connection between blood sugar levels, anti-social behavior and delinquency. Theories are mostly represented in the field of juvenile delinquency and presume that poor nutrition affects delinquent behavior. Poor nutrition directly affects the learning process. However, the causal connection between delinquency and candies isn't direct. Excessively low levels of blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can cause the development of negative behavior, nervous behavior, mental confusion, physical weakness, delirium and violence. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause hypoglycemia and increase aggressive behavior.

Cholesterol and crime

Clinical trials made found a relation between low cholesterol and aggressive behavior in animals. The study conducted in Sweden on 79,777 men and women at age (24-70), who had police arrest records for violent crimes, found a strong connection between lowered levels of cholesterol and violent behavior. Measurements of cholesterol levels of violent offenders were compared with measurement records of non-offenders based on gender, age, type of offender (sexual or violent), alcohol consumption and enrollment year.
Low levels of cholesterol are associated with persons who have difficulties with internalization of social norms and have the tendency to be irresponsible. Low cholesterol levels can cause hypoglycemia.

Vitamins and crime

Vitamins and minerals are very important in a regular diet. Disruption of homeostasis can cause difficulties. Theory states that low intake of vitamins, and minerals can cause delinquent behavior.

In theory, the difference between observed objects can be small, very small, big or very big. In our every day life, we see such differences, but in order to become a hypothesis, the difference between observed phenomenons must be statistically significant. Even small difference can be statistically significant. Statistically significant difference means that the difference between observed objects isn't accidental.
In this case, the statistically significant difference between observed phenomenons exists, but the causality mechanism still isn’t clear. Exempli gratia 96% of a smoker dies from lung cancer, but 15% of a non-smoker also dies from lung cancer. In statistics this phenomenon is known as Fisher's third variable. In concordance with Fisher's third variable theory, violent people just might have a more chance to behave aggressively, than non-delinquents, because of  the unknown third factors.

The biochemical and neurological theories of crime researched the influence of neurotransmitters or hormones, processes of  the CNS and ANS on the criminal behavior. These types of theories take into consideration some influences of social factors. However, neurological and biochemical theories still focus on the biological aspect of crime causation. 

 Lombroso's view on crime

Strength of the university is measured by the number of recognized academics.

This rating of universities is based on the number of graduate students who have won the Nobel prize for accomplishment in economics, medicine or physiology, chemistry, physics, literature and peace.

University of California - Berkley has produced the highest number of Nobel's laureates in chemistry, while Chicago University has the highest number of Nobel's laureates in physics.

John Hopkins University has the highest number of Nobel's prize winners in medicine and physiology, while Harvard and Chicago University have the highest number of Nobel's laureates in economics.


Number of
Nobel's prize winners
Nobel's prize for
Nobel's prize
Medicine and Physiology
Nobel's prize
Nobel's prize
Nobel's prize
Nobel's prize for














































The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in 2010 rates:
Harvard  University  No. 1  
University of California, Berkley No. 2
Columbia University No. 8
Chicago University No. 9
John Hopkins University No. 3. in Medicine and Pharmacy

The only criminologist who has won the Nobel's prize is Garry Stanley Becker. Becker was awarded with Nobel's prize for economy in 1992. He graduated from Princeton University in 1951.

Top Five accredited online degrees in Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice Online Degree Programs in America the lowest cost of distance learning

Bellow listed University programs are affordable from a perspective of income. In the recession, the value of degrees has significantly dropped. The degree doesn't necessary mean getting a job for sure. Those who express the wish to upgrade their academic knowledge, have a job and sustainable income will certainly be interested to explore and employ criminal justice knowledge in their branch as a way to sustain their job position.Worldwide employment trends show an increase of need for experts in medical, accounting and health care professions. Because the governments do not expand, have large deficits, have imposed the cuts and austerity measures, it is very unlikely that there will be a demand for specialists in criminal justice in the period of 10 years. However, the rapid development of new types of computer crimes will certainly require an attention of experienced criminologists and IT specialists as cyber detectives.

Criminology jobs are generally for those who have obtained bachelors, masters or PhD degrees in the area of criminology or criminal justice. Criminologists in general terms are an analysts, and criminological education usually attracts people who have well developed analytical, cognitive, logical, practical, systematical and creative skills. Sometimes criminology jobs require experts of different education profile and working background to work for law enforcement. Having a degree in criminology or criminal justice doesn't necessary mean that the person will work automatically in criminal justice system agencies. Although the education is specific, implementation of skills and knowledge's gained trough criminological education can be various, and criminology college freshman can find even better job opportunities in the private sector.

Top Five universities in America

Job opportunities for criminologists can be found in more than 10 job profession areas:

Private sector

1. Security agencies

2. Consulting companies (security consulting)

3. Insurance companies ( insurance swindle investigation)

4. Banks (surveillance systems, internal control unit)

5. Other organizations

Private sector employers usually hire experienced professional who have at least 3-7 years of working experience in criminal justice system. They rarely take trainees.

Government and local governments

1. Police agencies

2. Courts

3. Correctional institutions

4. Military

5. Other governments and local government organizations

University, program
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$ 7,000
Fort Hays State University,

Master of Liberal Studies/Criminal Justice
Fort Hays State University
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(785) 628-5578
United States
$ 10,000
  American Public University,

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice
Charles Town, West Virginia,
111 W Congress St,

New Mexico State University,

Master of Science Criminal Justice

Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003
            United States
Troy University e-Campus,
Master of Science in Criminal Justice
601 University Avenue, Troy,  334-670-0195
United States of America
  3 -
University of Central Missouri,
Master of Science
306 Broad Street, Warrensburg,
United States of America

In its beginnings, there was an attempt to develop valid and relevant theories of crime causation as well as to find answers how to control or prevent crime. Early theorists have only partially explored the issues concerning criminality. Crime on the theoretical level was an explored trough a personal perception and sometimes using empirical knowledge about crime.
Throughout history, two distinctive questions were the precursors for historical development of criminology. First question was: How to prevent and deal with crime? With  a development of organized society in early Babylonia, laws like Codex Hammurabi had regulated behaviors and proscribed appropriate punishments for such deviant behaviors. Codex Hammurabi has made differences between social classes of perpetrators in the appliance of punishments.

At that time, there were four types of punishments:
1. Exile
2. Death penalty
3. Compensation
4. Slavery

In medieval Europe at 13th century, the development of legal sciences has brought significant progress in phrasing legal norms. The development of criminal law began it diverse development around 1530s when some rulers of the European states began to issue own criminal codes ( Constitutio Criminalis Carolina (1532), Constitutio Criminalis Bambargensis (1509) and other criminal codes). The goal of these criminal codes was to reduce cases when local criminal codes haven't regulated some undesirable behaviors. The European Criminal  Law was mostly particular, while the universal codes of rulers have been the subsidiary and secondary source for application of law. Criminal law in general terms were at that time unified source where the norms have regulated description of crimes, determined sanctions for crimes and the Criminal Court procedures. Division of the criminal law in general terms began in 17th century. The word "constitutio" derives from Latin, and it means a rulers decision, proclamation or edict. The word "constitutio" today signifies the decision of executive branch, which by its legal power is equal to the laws, but limited on the time period of one year.
European Criminal Law has continued its development trough 17th and 18th century. The most known criminal codes of that time were: Constitution Criminalis Leopoldina, Constitutio Criminalis Josephina, Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana and Code de Napoleon which applied until 1992 in France.
Second question was: What is the cause of crime? The cause of crime is mostly explained religiously as an act of evil influence. With a development of philosophy, philosophers like Plato and Aristotle have seen possible explanations of crime in socio-economic status. The religious explanations of crime causality have remained the prevailing explanation of crime until 1700s. The emergence of classical criminology as a first school of modern criminology brought first serious attempts to philosophically and logically explain causes of crime. However, the philosophical explanations of crime causality were too general. At that time, the foundations have been placed for sociology to create specific theories. Positivist criminology has focused its research interest on the criminal in an attempt to measure criminality in some way, and that changed the views on the criminality in a way that no longer was relevant only to create theoretical models, but also to process data of scientific measurements. Although the lack of understanding of experimental variables and causality in the experiment, brought characters like Lombroso to insist on their thesis. It will take a lot of time for scientists to find flaws of their thesis and conclusions, but with development of experimental methodology chances to make mistakes  have been reduced significantly.

Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) was an Italian psychiatrist and military medical doctor who  developed theories about the criminals. His theories are no longer valid today. Only credit which can be given to Lombroso is that he was the pioneer in inducement of scientific methods to criminology. Although anthropometric measurements were correct, the causal connection between human physical traits and criminality was deceptive. Sometimes scientists spend their whole career proving their hypotheses. Similar things happen in every area of human social activity. Development and understanding of scientific methods made possible to prove flaws of many studies in criminology and other sciences.

Classical criminology: Beccaria's views of crime

Lombroso developed the theory about "born criminal". In 3000 anthropometric measurements he found some biological traits of criminals.

Biological traits of born criminal are:

-    unusual size or shape of the head,

-    strange eyes,

-    facial asymmetry,

-    extended jaw and jaw bone,

-    too big or too small ears,

-    full lips leaned forward,

-    abnormal teeths,

-    wrinkled skin,

-    nose curled up; thieves have a flat nose and murderers have a beak nose,

-    too long, too small or flat chin,

-    dark skin and

-    too long arms.

According to Lombroso,  persons who have five or more biological traits are born criminals. Beside physical traits Lombroso introduces some other traits of born criminal:

1)    hypersensitivity to pain and touch,

2)    use of special criminal slang,

3)    grotesque expression of thoughts,

4)    tattoos and

5)    unemployment.

Lombroso later changes the theory of born criminal and develops a new theory. Classification of criminals is made into three categories:

1)    born criminals (30% of all criminals),

2)    abnormal criminals (idiots, imbeciles, paranoids, melancholics, paralytics, epileptics, demented persons,  alcoholics and hysterics)

3)    occasional criminals

      a) criminaloids

      b) pseudo criminals

      c) criminals out of habit

Criminaloids had difficulties during their childhood and can occasionally behave delinquently. Pseudo criminals are insane persons and those who committed crime in self defense. Habitual criminals had a poor education during their childhood or have been in social interaction with criminals.

Further studies of Lombroso's thesis were made by Goring in 1913 and Hooton in 1939.

Goring contests Lombroso's thesis based on the experiment he made on 3000 criminals and non-criminals. Goring didn't find any physical abnormalities or traits on criminals. He criticized Lombroso on the issue of born criminal and found that such thesis is inaccurate as well as dangerous. Goring concluded that no one is criminal until he or she commits a crime.

Hooton confirms Lombroso's thesis based on the research he made on 14000 criminals and 3000 non-criminals from 10 Federal states of U.S.

Lombroso's theory was popular in his time, but it was later debunked. Some ideas fall out of favor in science as well as in politics with time. Lombroso's views on crime are still present today in the form of stereotypes on some minority groups. Furthermore, research conducted on police sub cultural behavior shows that police officers have similar stereotypes on particular racial groups.

Criminology theories of crime: Overview of criminology theoretical schools of thought 

Studies made in 1950's show that fluoride is beneficial for your teeth. Study was made by Dr. Harold Hodge, who was a respectable member of scientific community. Later, it was found that he was involved in experiments injecting radioactive plutonium in test subjects at University of Rochester in November 1945 Dr. Harold Hodge took his part in Manhattan project.

More information's can be found in the book: "The Plutonium files: America's secret medical experiments in the Cold War" by Eileen Welsome.

Test subjects who were injected with plutonium were:

1. Edna Schultz Carlton "HP-3" November 27, 1945

2. Jean Daigneault "HP-4" November 27, 1945

3. Paul Gallinger "HP-5" November 30, 1945

                                    4. Daniel Nelson, HP-10" July 16,1946

                                    5. and others

Fluoride was used in atomic bomb production, and Dr. Harold Hodge was a chief toxicologist in Manhattan project. Atomic bomb production required large quantities of fluorides. The copy of declassified study made by University of Rochester "Atomic energy project" clearly shows that fluoride is a highly toxic component. Atomic energy commission as well as other contractors were playing a major role in the cover-up and now face lawsuits.

Another study was made by Gerald J. Cox from the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research at Pittsburgh Philadelphia. Gerald J. Cox was asked by Francis C. Freary to research fluoride pollution effects caused by Aluminum Plant. Francis C. Freary was a Director of Aluminum Plant Laboratory. He suggested to Gerald C. Cox to investigate dental effects of sodium fluoride, what is totally absurd? Actually, Francis C. Freary was more interested how to dispose sodium fluoride. At that time, it was very expensive to dispose sodium fluoride. Obviously, the fastest and fewer expensive way was a trough public water supply.
In 2004 Christopher Bryson published a book "The fluoride deception" after 10 years of researching facts about fluorides. Mellon Institute was one of the supporters of asbestos usage. They claimed that mesohyloma is caused by something other than asbestos.
Fluorides airborne have done more damage than any other air pollutant.
Dr. Edward Groth claims that fluoride is responsible for more health damage than all 20 monitored air pollutant combined.
Denora Halloween pollution incident in Pennsylvania is the most notorious air pollution incident in history of USA, which caused 19 deaths and couple of thousands of injured, because of gas emission from the steel plant.
Philip Saddler, young chemist at that time analyzed the blood of deceased ones and found a high concentration of fluorides in their blood. The analysis was published in Chemical and Engineering News. Uncovered memo from the Aluminum Company later confirmed the analysis of Phillip Saddler. Sodium fluoride is a highly toxic ingredient of rat poison. Main usage of fluoride is in atomic bomb production and aluminum production where sodium fluoride is a by-product. Sodium fluoride is also used in medical drug production. 
Sodium fluoride can cause:

1. Lung empizema,
2. Bone cancer,
3. Breathing problems
4. Poisoning
5. Detention deficit disorder
6. Passivity
7. Liver damage
8. Muscle tension
9. and some other health problems
Studies made in Germany, British Columbia - Canada, New Zealand and Finland have shown that tooth decay has decreased in non fluoridated areas. The study made in U.S.A. on 39 207 children has shown reduced decay of deciduous teeth in 5-year old children in fluoridated areas. However, this isn't a case in the reduction of teeth decay in permanent teeth. In 1994 The Journal Fluoride, Volume 27, #1,13-22 shows a study made in New Zealand on 14-year old. Teeth decay correlated more with social-economic  status than with fluoridation.

The study made in India on 400.000 children hasn't shown any benefits of water fluoridation. 98% of European  countries don't use water fluoridation and those that do are considering to end it.

Dr. Phyllis Mullinex was hired by USA Army Medcom, while working at Harvard University Dental School found that rats fed with fluorides developed large numbers of neurological defects. She lost her job soon as she advised against water fluoridation.

Biological theories of crime causation tried to find casualties who affect human behavior and actions. Many scientific disciplines such as psychology, political sciences, criminal law, sociology and biology contribute to criminology. Criminology is the integration of these knowledge's that every science has about deviant, forbidden, unmoral and abnormal acts. Like many other social sciences, criminology deals with a probability and probability is tested trough statistical analysis and other methods. Criminology studies crimes, criminals, forms of criminal behavior, the possible causes of crime, social environment, victims and the social reaction on criminal acts. Areas of criminological studies can be: juvenile delinquency, penology, victimology, etiology, phenomenology, criminal prophylaxis, criminal prognosis, clinical studies, anti-delinquent policy and other. Criminal justice and theoretical criminology share many research interests and have well developed relations as scientific disciplines.

 Classification of theoretical criminology

Theories are the product of certain historical or cultural context. Valid elements of theory are contextualized again in a new theory. Theories are distant from practice, because the relations between practice and theory is often disregarded. Therefore, theory sometimes becomes a set of raw facts without any applicability.
Classification of applied criminology

Interests to research crime existed throughout history. Throughout history, crime was researched as a dynamic social phenomenon. In short, terms, crime was a relative term, because the views on crime have changed, and what was considered as a crime in the past, today perhaps is not a crime. For an example, homosexuality was a crime in not so far history.

Early biological theories of crime tried to establish a connection between physical deformity, disability and ugliness with crime, while borderline scientific disciplines such as physiognomy attempted to establish a link between facial features, personality and crime. Explanation of biological theories of crime favors biological traits as a dominant factor that will affect  human behavior and actions.

"Mens sana in corpore sano."

Throughout medieval times, physical deformities such as moles, warts and third nipples were proof of demonic possession. It was quite easy and suitable to condemn ugly persons to death.

To be ugly has fallen out of favor in medieval times.

Biosocial theories of crime causation stress out importance of biochemical conditions, genetic code, neurological conditions and influences of social environment on the behavior. Combined effect of personal biological traits and social environment will result in conformity with social norms or with crime. Other biosocial theorists point out the influence of low levels of chemical nutrients and minerals on criminal behavior. Lack of nutrients and minerals has an impact on physical growth, cognitive and intellectual development. Researches conducted by biosocial theorist show that excessively high or low levels of some chemicals and minerals such as sodium, calcium, amino-acids and others could lead to cognitive dysfunctionality, loss of memory, depression or manic behavior. Other researches find out that excessive intake of metals like iron and manganese can lead to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and neurological dysfunctions. It is believed that those neurological conditions are linked with criminal behavior.

Evolutionary theories of crime

Modern evolutionary criminologists base their arguments on the work of Charles Darwin. According to today's evolutionary criminologists, crime is a result of the maladaptive process on the social environment. Evolutionary criminological concept wasn't very welcomed by mainstream (positivist) criminologists, but some anthropologist and psychologists still pursue the possibility that crime is a form of an adaptive trait.

Neuroscience and explanations of crime

Rapid development of neuroscience has brought to form of new theories of crime. Neuroscientists point out that crime is a psychopathological or psychological disorder.

Physiological theories of crime are sometimes categorized as psychological theories or biological theories.

William Sheldon, American psychologist in 1949 developed theory of somatotypes. Sheldon made the classification of body types on:
- ectomorphs,
- mesomorphs and
- endomorphs.

Based on the physical constitution, Sheldon found psychological and personality traits, which are characteristic for every of somatotypes. According to Sheldon, ectomorphs are highly predispositioned to commit a crime.

Similar classification of somatotypes was developed by German psychiatrist E. Kretschmer in 1921. Kretschmer's classification system introduced three body types:

- asthenic / leptosomic,
- athletic
- and pyknic.